Read here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, and here for background information on the latest developments of this climate science scandal. Based on available information, are we witnessing a massive scientific fraud endeavor that has UN backing? If you do not have......
time to review these links, here's a brief summary of this science scandal/fraud:
There appears to be a tight-knit group of paleo-climate scientists who have chosen to pursue research that would make the Medieval Warming Period and Little Ice Age disappear and accentuate warming in the 20th century. Of all the peer-reviewed studies that have been done to reconstruct historical temperatures, this group of scientists decided that a Northern Siberian (Yamal peninsula) tree ring study best fit their needs. Out of the 2,000 trees in the Yamal study, the paleo-climate scientists picked some dozen individual tree ring records that best produced the desired result - no Medieval Warming, no Little Ice Age, and a lot of warming in the 20th century. These dozen trees produced the visual 'hockey stick' result that global warming alarmists rely on for proof. Literally, the whole UN alarmist basis for climate catastrophe and "unprecedented" warming seems to be a result of these dozen trees that are used in every study that this same group of scientists publish.
The fact that these same one-dozen trees show up in study-after-study is simply amazing. Even more amazing is that the UN's IPCC ignored multiple paleo-climate studies, from approximately the same latitudinal area, that totally refute the 'dozen-tree' conclusions. Below are some of those peer-reviewed studies:
- Southeastern Shelf of the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean - Studied the distributions of different species of siliceous microflora (diatoms), calcareous microfauna (foraminifers) and spore-pollen assemblages found in sediment cores retrieved from 21 sites on the inner shelf of the southern and eastern Laptev Sea... In addition, "judging from the increased diversity and abundance of the benthic foraminifers, the appearance of moderately thermophilic diatom species, and the presence of forest tundra (instead of tundra) pollen," they write that "the Medieval warming exceeded the recent 'industrial' one."
- Northern Russian Treeline, Russia - This work revealed, in their words, that "temperature increases over the past century are already producing demonstrable changes in the population density of trees, but these changes have not yet generated an extension of conifer species' limits to or beyond the former positions occupied during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP: ca AD 800-1300)..."
- Bol'shoi Avam River, Putoran Plateau, North Central Siberia, Russia - The authors developed a history of trunk radial growth increment of larch trees in the middle reaches of the Bol'shoi Avam River on the northern edge of the Putoran Plateau, central Taimyr for the period AD 886-2003, which they found to be correlated with summer air temperature. This work revealed a period of time from the start of the record to approximately AD 1200, when inferred temperatures were generally much greater than those of the final decades of the 20th century.
- Polar Ural Mountains, Russia - This work revealed that "a large number of well-preserved tree remains can be found up to 60-80 meters above the current tree line, some dating to as early as a maximum of 1300 years ago," and that "the earliest distinct maximum in stand density occurred in the 11th to 13th centuries, coincident with Medieval climatic warming." Since Marzepa cites many studies that conclude that "increases in tree-line elevation, and associated increases in tree abundance within the transient tree-line ecotone, are associated with extended warm periods," and that "the vertical gradient of summer air temperature in the Polar Urals is 0.7°C/100 m," we conclude that the Medieval Warm Period lasted from approximately AD 700 to 1300 and that significant portions of it were as much as 0.56°C warmer than the Current Warm Period.
- Lake Lehmilampi, Eastern Finland - The authors extracted two sediment cores from Lake Lehmilampi in eastern Finland, after which they identified and counted the approximately 2000 annual varves contained in each core and measured their individual thicknesses and mineral and organic matter contents......Consequently, because they note that (1) "the thinnest varves of the last 2000 years were deposited during [the] solar activity maxima in the Middle Ages," specifically AD 1060-1280, that (2) the low deposition rate of mineral matter in that period "implies mild winters with a short ice cover period during that time with minor snow accumulation interrupted by thawing periods," and that (3) the concurrent "low accumulation of organic matter suggests a long open water season and a high decomposition rate of organic matter," it follows that the solar-induced Medieval Warm Period of AD 1060-1280 in that part of the world was likely the warmest period of the past two millennia.
- Finland's Southern Boreal Forest, Near Savonlinna, Finland - The authors applied x-ray microdensitometry to subfossil samples of Scots pine trees collected from the bottom sediments of six small lakes within the southern boreal forest zone near the city of Savonlinna in south-eastern Finland, which covered the period AD 673-1788. This work revealed the occurrence of both the Medieval Warm Period (AD 975-1150) and the Little Ice Age (AD 1450-1625), between which periods there was a dramatic decline in tree-ring maximum density, indicative of a significant drop in summer growing-season temperature.
- Voring Plateau, Eastern Norwegian Sea - August surface temperatures of the eastern Norwegian Sea's Voring Plateau were derived from planktic stable isotopes and foraminiferal assemblage concentrations. The Medieval Warm Period occurred between AD 1200 and 1500 and was as much as 3.3°C warmer than the Current Warm Period.
From what is known, it appears that the IPCC condoned the type of research that the dozen-tree Yamal research represents. The IPCC has relied on this very exclusive dozen-tree history, while totally ignoring more encompassing research (see above), which reveals an incredible lack of scientific due diligence. As a result, the UN's IPCC has obviously done monumental damage to global science credibility. Simply amazing.