As multiple studies have proven before, this type of ocean acidification alarmism is lacking in empirical, scientific merit.
As multiple studies have proven before, this type of ocean acidification alarmism is lacking in empirical, scientific merit.
Read here. The IPCC prediction that the sea's plankton are at survival risk because of ocean acidification has gained much attention in the mainstream press. But does this prediction have scientific merit?
The Nielsen et al. team of researchers decided to investigate if the prediction was sound in terms of science.
"The authors write that "the atmospheric CO2 concentration is rising, and models predict that by the end of the century it will have increased to twice the amount seen at any given time during the last 15 million years," stating that "this will cause a decrease in average surface water pH of 0.4," while noting that planktonic protists will be among the organisms to be affected first by this change."..."tested whether reduced pH would affect plankton communities over an incubation period of 14 days."...researchers determined that nutrient uptake and photosynthetic parameters "were all unaffected by pH treatments 8.3-7.7," treatments that they say "match the predicted 21st century changes in CO2 and pH." In addition, they found that "cellular carbon and total particulate organic carbon were both completely unaffected by pH treatment within this range," and that "the same was true for the succession of all 25 enumerated protist species." [Lasse Tor Nielsen, Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff, Simon W. Wright, Per Juel Hansen 2012: Aquatic Microbial Ecology]
Read here. Ocean acidification sounds like a catastrophe waiting to destroy all marine life, until one examines the actual empirical research. ‘C3’ has written about the bizarre, chicken-little acidification fears multiple times, and multiple studies keep coming to the same conclusion – the facts don’t correlate with the blatant fearmongering.
Now, a new peer reviewed study (Crawfurd et al.) examines “acidification” impacts on marine diatoms – the most common phytoplankton, the basis of the food chain. As previous studies determined and this study confirms, in reality ocean acidification impacts are tiny and future marine catastrophic death scenarios are on par with other hyped urban legends.
“The authors state that diatoms are very important for the productivity of the world's oceans, as they contribute about 45% of global marine primary production; and they therefore say it is essential to understand how diatoms and other marine phytoplankton will respond to the higher aqueous CO2 and lower pH conditions that will prevail in their surface waters in the near future, as a result of the dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 in them... grew over 100 generations of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in seawater maintained in equilibrium with air of either current (ambient) CO2 concentration or expected end-of-the-century (twice-ambient) CO2 concentration (380 or 760 ppm)...conclude in the final sentence of their paper that "if all diatoms respond in a similar fashion to T. pseudonana, acidification of this magnitude in the future ocean may have little effect on diatom productivity."” [Katharine J. Crawfurd, John A. Raven, Glen L. Wheeler, Emily J. Baxter, Ian Joint 2011: PLoS One]
Previous peer-reviewed postings.
Read here. Alarmists and anti-CO2 activists have loudly suggested that sea water that becomes more "acidified" will significantly harm marine species. Listening to the alarmists, one would surmise that mollusks such as clams and oysters would literally have their shells disappear from lower pH levels of oceans.
A new peer reviewed study by Parker et al. punctures this hot air balloon of alarmism with empirical evidence from actual experiments.
"The authors write that studies on the impact of ocean acidification on marine organisms that have been conducted to date "have only considered the impacts on 'adults' or 'larvae', ignoring the potential link between the two life-history stages and the possible carry-over effects that may be passed from adult to offspring,"...placed adults of wild-collected and selectively-bred populations of the Sydney rock oyster which they obtained at the beginning of reproductive conditioning - within seawater equilibrated with air of either 380 ppm CO2 (near-ambient) or 856 ppm CO2 (predicted for 2100 by the IPCC)...found that the larvae spawned from adults living in the "acidified" seawater were the same size as those spawned from adults living in near-ambient seawater; but they report that "larvae spawned form adults exposed to elevated CO2 were larger and developed faster."...concluding that the results of their work suggest that "marine organisms may have the capacity to acclimate or adapt to elevated CO2 over the next century."" [Laura M. Parker, Pauline M. Ross, Wayne A. O'Connor, Larissa Borysko, David A. Raftos, Hans-Otto Pörtner 2012: Global Change Biology]
Read here. With the failed global warming alarmism proving to be non-sustainable due to lower global temperatures, alarmists made ocean "acidification" their next predicted calamity to cause world collapse.
Scientists decided to research and analyze the non-scientific acidification claims by conducting experiments on cold water coral, which is considered to be most susceptible to lower pH levels. Much like the left's / liberal's embrace of fraudulent anti-vaccine fears, the researchers found the irrational acidification fears to be misplaced also.
"Ocean acidification, often termed ‘the evil twin of global warming’, is caused when the CO2 emitted by human activity dissolves into the oceans. Presently, the ocean takes up about 25% of man-made CO2, which has led to a decrease in seawater pH of 0.1 units since 1800. By 2100, surface ocean pH values can easily drop by another 0.3–0.4 units...the impacts it may have on marine organisms and ecosystems are still poorly understood. A major gap in our understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on life in the sea is the potential of marine organisms to acclimate and adapt to increasing seawater acidity"..."they found was that in an experiment that lasted only 8 days, that the growth rate of the coral was slowed down by the dissolution of extra CO2 into the aquarium water...In a second experiment in which the coral specimens were exposed to lower pH levels for 178 days, the growth rate did not decline, and in fact, even appeared to increase under the lower pH (more acid) conditions...Instead, growth rate, which was comparable to that of the control treatment in the short-term experiment, stayed high at elevated CO2 levels." [Armin U., Ulf Riebesell 2012: Global Change Biology]
Read here. New empirical research determines that extreme variation in pH levels of sea waters occurs naturally and frequently. The extremes are so great that marine life is often exposed to "acidified" waters without being threatened in the course of daily life.
Human CO2 emissions are not causing the extreme pH ranges currently existing in sea waters.
The peer-reviewed research by Hofman et al completely vindicates the skeptics' position of ocean acidification and thoroughly exposes the common alarmist position - hysterical leftist / liberal / progressive anti-science that is never able to withstand the scrutiny of scientific empirical research.
"The authors draw two conclusions: (1) most non-open ocean sites vary a lot, and (2) and some spots vary so much they reach the “extreme” pH’s forecast for the doomsday future scenarios on a daily (a daily!) basis."..."Here, we present a compilation of continuous, high-resolution time series of upper ocean pH, collected using autonomous sensors, over a variety of ecosystems ranging from polar to tropical, open-ocean to coastal, kelp forest to coral reef. These observations reveal a continuum of month-long pH variability with standard deviations from 0.004 to 0.277 and ranges spanning 0.024 to 1.430 pH units. The nature of the observed variability was also highly site-dependent, with characteristic diel, semi-diurnal, and stochastic patterns of varying amplitudes. These biome-specific pH signatures disclose current levels of exposure to both high and low dissolved CO2, often demonstrating that resident organisms are already experiencing pH regimes that are not predicted until 2100." [Gretchen E. Hofmann, Jennifer E. Smith, Kenneth S. Johnson, Uwe Send, Lisa A. Levin, Fiorenza Micheli, Adina Paytan, Nichole N. Price, Brittany Peterson, Yuichiro Takeshita, Paul G. Matson, Elizabeth Derse Crook, Kristy J. Kroeker, Maria Cristina Gambi, Emily B. Rivest, Christina A. Frieder, Pauline C. Yu, Todd R. Martz 2011: Plos One]
Read here. Green fraud is endemic within the academic community and is a major reason why the public now view science with less esteem. The Yale 360 forum provides further proof that the academia realm is less interested in honest science than in perpetuating the green fraud hysteria of climate change.
Case in point. A green propagandist, Elizabeth Grossman, had her hysterical ocean acidification article published by Yale 360. The article claims that a massive oyster die-off was caused by ocean acidification, which is supposedly caused by human CO2 emissions. Unfortunately for the public, this Yale 360 article is another "gross" misrepresentation of scientific truth and the actual empirical evidence.
Sooo...why did the oysters at the oyster farm really die? Here are the real science reasons that Yale 360 and Grossman decided the public really did not want to know:
In essence, natural climate change, in the form of ENSO, causes cold water of the Pacific to rise to the surface during certain periods. This colder water has a higher concentration of CO2 gas. The fish hatchery pumps the cold water into the farm tanks and then heats the water. This act of heating the cold water then causes it to become CO2 super-saturated. In addition, the freshly pumped sea water contains higher levels of bacteria (associated with a specific natural ENSO climate mode) dangerous to the oyster larvae/juveniles.
Voila, a perfect storm of predictable factors cause a die-off of farm oysters, robustly a result of natural climatic conditions. Atmospheric CO2 levels and human CO2 emissions had nothing to do with this incident.
Conclusion: The academic-oriented Yale 360 environmental forum is not to be believed on any climate change or ocean acidification issue, as it is more a forum of green hysteria that is incredibly vulnerable to perpetuating scary green myths and anti-science fraud B.S.
Read here. Much to do has been made of the alarmist claim that atmospheric CO2 emissions are "acidifying" the oceans. Often, alarmist cherry-pickers extraordinaire will point to a coastal area that has been designated an acidification "hotspot" with the implication that human CO2 atmospheric emissions are the cause. The latest research though indicates that atmospheric CO2 emissions are not the culprit.
Since atmospheric CO2 is considered a well-mixed greenhouse gas, it's hard to fathom how it could then cause specific "hotspots" of acidification in coastal waters.
Kelly et al. peer reviewed study analyzed information from multiple studies that included such hotspot areas as Kennebec River plume in the Gulf of Maine, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Manning River estuary in New South Wales, Australia. Their research points to other human factors that are negatively impacting these waters.
"They begin by noting that "several studies document acidification hot spots, patches of ocean water with significantly depressed pH levels relative to historical baselines occurring at spatial scales of tens to hundreds of square kilometers...illustrate that freshwater inputs, pollutants, and soil erosion can acidify coastal waters at substantially higher rates than atmospheric CO2 alone." And they add that "additional local phenomena -- such as sulfur dioxide precipitation, hypoxia, eutrophication, and both emissions and runoff from acidic fertilizers -- can intensify these localized hot spots,"...Some of the remedial measures that they list in this category are "stormwater surge prevention (e.g., holding tanks), coastal and riparian buffers (areas of vegetation near land-water intersections), intact wetlands, and improved onsite water treatment facilities," which they describe as "effective measures to address watershed runoff and associated pollutants."" [Kelly, R.P., Foley, M.M., Fisher, W.S., Feely, R.A., Halpern, B.S., Waldbusser, G.G. and Caldwell, M.R. 2011: Science]
Read here. The left/green coalition has conjured up the boogieman termed "ocean acidification" to instill fear in the hearts of liberal/progressives "elites" that marine life will be adversely affected by greater emissions of human CO2. Based on the ocean acidification fears, Yu et al. conducted research on sea urchin babies larvae immersed in water with lower values of pH to determine its impact on larvae growth and well being.
The research found that sea urchin larvae were not impacted by levels of increasing "acidification" of sea water that some have predicted will represent ocean waters 100+ years from now.
"Yu et al. state that "the observed developmental progression and survival of cultures was within the norm typically observed for this species at this temperature range." In addition, they indicate that "a lack of developmental deformities at early stages for pCO2 ~1000 ppm has been previously reported for this species..." And they say "there are even reports that survival is increased in this species and its congener S. droebachiensis under some low pH conditions..."...conclude, that "the effects of small magnitude in these urchin larvae are indicative of a potential resilience to near-future levels of ocean acidification."" [Pauline C. Yua, Paul G. Matsona, Todd R. Martzb, Gretchen E. Hofmanna 2011: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology]
Note: Yes, indeed we know larvae are not 'babies' and we also know that polar bears are not 'cuddly' as the greens like to portray.
Read here. As has been widely noted by the hysterical MSM, Hollywood bimbo celebrities and the IPCC's climate change alarmists have predicted that CO2 levels higher than the current 390 ppm level will bring great harm to all ocean life, especially to the early development of calcifying invertebrates. A new peer-reviewed study, by actual non-Hollywood scientists, reveals that the predicted larval death by acidification is the usual liberal/left, anti-science hysteria on steroids.
Martin et al. analyzed the effects of incredibly high CO2 levels (low ocean pH) on Mediterranean sea urchins. Other than a slower larval growth at ~3560 ppm, the sea urchins were unaffected by the ludicrously low pH levels imposed on the test subjects.
"The authors write that "ocean acidification is predicted to have significant effects on benthic calcifying invertebrates, in particular on their early developmental states," and they note that "echinoderm larvae could be particularly vulnerable to decreased pH, with major consequences for adult populations."...explored the effect of a gradient of decreasing pH from 8.1 to 7.0 -- corresponding to atmospheric CO2 concentrations of ~400 ppm to ~6630 ppm -- on the larvae of the sea urchin...The eleven researchers found that "Paracentrotus lividus appears to be extremely resistant to low pH, with no effect on fertilization success or larval survival."" [Sophie Martin, Sophie Richier, Maria-Luiza Pedrotti, Sam Dupont, Charlotte Castejon, Yannis Gerakis, Marie-Emmanuelle Kerros, François Oberhänsli, Jean-Louis Teyssié, 0. Ross Jeffree, Jean-Pierre Gattuso 2011: The Journal of Experimental Biology]
Read here. "Consensus" climate scientists, the IPCC, fanatical environmental groups, and the MSM have all predicted the demise of coral reefs due to the twin evils of human-induced global warming and ocean acidification. Were the predictions just alarmist hype and fabricated lies to easily fool the anti-science liberals/progressives/leftists?
Researchers, Helmle et al., analyzed coral reefs from the Florida Keys to determine if they were degraded during the 20th century from the twin "evils" predicted. Hmmm....turns out the predictions were wrong. Instead, it would seem that coral reefs prospered under warmer and CO2-enhanced water conditions.
"The authors note that ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide is claimed by many to be a threat to calcifying marine organisms; and they state that when ocean acidification is combined with physiological stress caused by concomitantly rising sea surface temperatures, "shifts in community structure and accelerating degradation of coral reef ecosystems may result."...Coral cores were collected in May of 1997 and June of 1998 from seven Montastraea faveolata colonies located in the upper Florida Keys...for these cores, annual extension, density and calcification rates were obtained and analyzed, to see how they varied over this period of intensifying warming and acidification of the global ocean...they demonstrate that "the measured corals have historically been able to maintain rates of extension and calcification over the 60-year period from 1937 to 1996 under the combination of local environmental and climatic changes." They also note that calcification rates were positively related to sea surface temperature, "similar to results for Porites corals from Tahiti (Bessat and Buigues, 2001) and the Great Barrier Reef (Lough and Barnes, 1997),"" [Kevin P. Helmle, Richard E. Dodge, Peter K. Swart, Dwight K. Gledhill, C. Mark Eakin 2011: Nature Communications]
Read here. Because the CO2 alarmists keep losing the empirical evidence battle regarding global warming and climate change claims, they've turned to the bizarre hypothesis that human CO2 emissions will "acidify" the seas turning them deadly to all sea life, including sea corals. Like so many of the outlandish AGW-claims, this one does not stand up to empirical scrutiny either.
In a peer-reviewed study, Kreif et al. (2010) ran experiments to study the impact on sea corals in a water environment resembling those that would occur if extraordinary high levels of CO2 were found in the atmosphere. The result of the experiments found the sea corals not only surviving under low pH value extremes, but pertaining to certain health measurements, actually thrived.
"In the words of the seven scientists who conducted the study, "following 14 months incubation under reduced pH conditions, all coral fragments survived and added new skeletal calcium carbonate.....This was done, however, at a reduced rate of calcification compared to fragments growing in the normal pH treatment.....Yet in spite of this reduction in skeletal growth, they report that "tissue biomass (measured by protein concentration) was found to be higher in both species after 14 months of growth under increased CO2."....." and they write that "since calcification is an energy-consuming process ... a coral polyp that spends less energy on skeletal growth can instead allocate the energy to tissue biomass,".....In concluding their paper, Krief et al. say "the long acclimation time of this study allowed the coral colonies to reach a steady state in terms of their physiological responses to elevated CO2," and that "the deposition of skeleton in seawater with Ωarag < 1 demonstrates the ability of both species to calcify by modifying internal pH toward more alkaline conditions."" [Krief, S., Hendy, E.J., Fine, M., Yam, R., Meibom, A., Foster, G.L. and Shemesh, A. 2010]
Read here. There exists corals in several locations already thriving in open waters that possess the attributes of sea water under a condition of CO2 levels 2 to 3 times higher than today. The empirical evidence suggests that corals are fully capable of adapting to a wide range of conditions, including much higher levels of atmospheric CO2.
"...the two researchers report that "today, several reefs, including Galapagos, areas of Pacific Panama, and Jarvis (southern Line Islands), experience levels of aragonite saturation equivalent to that predicted for the open ocean under two times and three times pre-industrial CO2 levels"....."Probably the most important deduction to flow from these observations is the observable fact, in the words of Cohen and Holcomb, that "naturally elevated levels of inorganic nutrients and, consequently, high levels of primary and secondary production, may already be facilitating high coral calcification rates in regions with naturally high dissolved CO2 levels," which further suggests that earth's corals, with their genetically-diverse symbiotic zooxanthellae, are likely well equipped to deal successfully with whatever increase in the air's CO2 content will ultimately result from the burning of fossil fuels before other energy sources become viable..."
Additional sea coral postings.
Read here. Global warming alarmists have recently chosen to push the "ocean acidification" will harm marine life scare since the initial global warming scare has proven to be of such little significance. As has been documented in the recent past, study after study on ocean acidification finds empirical evidence pointing to its impact on marine life to one of very tiny to small. These studies are in significant contrast to the highly publicized, non-scientific claims made by Hollywood celebrities and anti-growth, green-fanatic organizations.
"The authors write that "echinoderms [ed: sea stars] are among the most abundant and ecologically successful groups of marine animals, and are one of the key marine groups most likely to be impacted by predicted climate change events," presumably because "the larvae and/or adults of many species from this phylum form skeletal rods, plates, test, teeth, and spines from an amorphous calcite crystal precursor, magnesium calcite, which is 30 times more soluble than normal calcite, "and this fact would normally be thought to make it much more difficult for them (relative to most other calcifying organisms) to produce calcification-dependent body parts....."The three researchers report that just the opposite of what is often predicted actually happened, as the echinoderm larvae and juveniles were "positively impacted by ocean acidification." More specifically, they found that "larvae and juveniles raised at low pH grow and develop faster, with no negative effect on survival or skeletogenesis within the time frame of the experiment (38 days)." In fact, they state that the sea stars' growth rates were "two times higher" in the acidified seawater; and they remark that "C. papposus seem to be not only more than simply resistant to ocean acidification, but are also performing better.""
Read here. Climate scientists and fear-mongering pundits have been banging the drums about the computer models' speculative predictions of "ocean acidification" and the resulting harm to marine life. Unfortunately, the highly gullible among us fall victim to this specific scare tactic despite the fact that marine life existed in waters of higher acidification levels for millions of years, and thrived and prospered doing so.
Fortunately for all of us (and those tasty shell fish), the actual empirical research, not the bogus computer model results, keep documenting the acidification scare falsehoods.
"...it's also good to remember that there is a large and accumulating body of research that demonstrates that extremely rapid micro-evolutionary processes are poised and ready to "kick into action" when required in almost all of earth's life forms, and that these phenomena should enable them to successfully respond to significant environmental changes at rates that correspond to the rates of those changes, as described by Balanya et al. (2006), Jump et al. (2006), Franks et al. (2007), Rae et al. (2007), Skelley et al. (2007), Van Doorslaer et al. (2007), Franks and Weis (2008), Jump et al. (2008), Purcell et al. (2008), Alford et al. (2009), Bell and Gonzalez (2009), Onoda et al. (2009) and Van Doorslaer et al. (2009)...Consequently, when all is said and done, it would appear that earth's shellfish should do just fine as the air's CO2 content continues to rise -- and gradually peaks -- near the end of the current century, as well as when it gradually returns to what it is today, some three centuries or so later..."
Read here. The green organizations that rely on donations from those individuals frightened by "ocean acidification" may have to get a new gig or find new gullible patsies. Study after study keeps being produced showing the impact of CO2 on marine life to range from minimal to nada.
The green-fanatic groups that conduct this type of money-raising via orchestrated scaremongering should lose their tax-exempt status or at least be investigated by the FTC for outright fraud.
"In studies of sea urchins, for example, statistically significant reductions in egg fertilization rates did not occur in Echinometra mathaei until the atmospheric CO2 concentration was raised a full 5,000 ppm above that of the ambient air; and in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, even a 10,000 ppm increase in the air's CO2 concentration was insufficient to elicit a statistically significant decline in egg fertilization rate.....In doing so, they say that over the ranges of seawater pH and temperature they studied, there was "no effect of pH" and "no interaction between temperature and pH" on sea urchin egg fertilization.....the five Australian researchers found that "across all treatments there was a highly significant effect of sperm density, but no significant effect of temperature or interaction between factors." In fact, they state that "low pH did not reduce the percentage of fertilization even at the lowest sperm densities used, and increased temperature did not enhance fertilization at any sperm density." In addition, they remark that "a number of ecotoxicology and climate change studies, where pH was manipulated with CO2 gas, show that sea urchin fertilization is robust to a broad pH range with impairment only at extreme levels well below projections for ocean acidification by 2100."
Read here. A lot of publicity and research funds have found their way to scientists because of the bizarre fear the oceans will become too "acidic" to support life. Even Hollywood bimbos pass their prime have so claimed. Unfortunately for the bimbos, and the ocean-is-acid alarmists, the real science keeps finding the evidence doesn't support the hysterical fear-mongering. Surprised?
"Winans and Purcell conclude that "A. labiata polyps [a jellyfish life stage] are quite tolerant of low pH, surviving and reproducing asexually even at the lowest tested pH," which degree of "acidification" is not expected to occur (even by climate alarmists) until about AD 2300.....they acknowledge that many organisms "may be able to acclimate or adapt to slowly changing pH conditions." And in this context they report that in Puget Sound "pH fluctuates from 7.2 to 9.6 in 2.4-meter deep water over the span of a couple of days," stating that "with such large pH fluctuations due to plant photosynthesis during the day and respiration at night, many organisms may be exposed to low pH conditions routinely." And, obviously, they are also successfully dealing with those low pH conditions routinely, as are an enormous amount of other marine organisms."
Other ocean acidification postings.
Read here and here. Researchers keep discovering aspects of the Earth's climate system that completely undermines the credibility of climate alarmist scientists and existing climate models. In the case of the climate models, submarine volcanoes (whether one, or three million) are not accounted for despite everyone knowing they must have some major impact on our climate. These volcanoes spew millions (billions?) of tons of CO2 and other compounds into the oceans and researchers are just now starting to theorize and document what effects may be occurring as a result.
Are volcanoes contributing to ocean acidification?
"It was the distinct lack of acidification of all the planet’s other water sources that prompted researchers to investigate why oceans alone were showing signs of increasing acidification....if human atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide were causing the oceans to acidify then why weren’t we seeing the same levels of rising acidity in rivers and reservoirs?....By finding no increases anywhere in inland water systems this study has inevitably concluded that any human emissions into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide must be excluded as a potential source of oceanic acidification."
Are volcanoes slowing climate change?
"A vast network of under-sea volcanoes pumping out nutrient-rich water in the Southern Ocean plays a key role in soaking up large amounts of carbon dioxide, acting as a brake on climate change, scientists say...A group of scientists have shown for the first time that the volcanoes are a major source of iron that single-celled plants called phytoplankton need to bloom and in the process soak up CO2, the main greenhouse gas."
Can volcanoes change the climate? New studies confirm that volcanoes can cause massive change.
"In summation, Hendriks et al. write that the world's marine biota are "more resistant to ocean acidification than suggested by pessimistic predictions identifying ocean acidification as a major threat to marine biodiversity," noting that this phenomenon "may not be the widespread problem conjured into the 21st century" by the world's climate alarmists. We agree, having reached much the same conclusion back at the turn of the last millennium."
Read here. We have written on this subject before, which has always sounded too bizarre to us. It appears that scientists are coming to the same conclusion, even those who at first claimed ocean acidification was an imminent disaster for all ocean life.
"That is to say, it will not be one grand catastrophe for earth's calcifying marine life [from ocean acidification]. Rather, there may well be both "winners and losers," as they put it, with the vast bulk of species likely sandwiched somewhere in between these two extremes. In fact, when real-world evidence for rapid adaptation and evolution is considered, the future actually looks quite bright for earth's aquatic (and terrestrial) life."
Read here. Peer-reviewed research out of Australia surprises scientists involved:
"the most common prediction is that ocean acidification could [negatively] affect individual performance (e.g. development, growth, survival, swimming ability)," especially during the early life history of such fish. However, they indicate that "contrary to expectations," their findings indicated that "CO2-induced acidification up to the maximum values likely to be experienced over the next 100 years had no noticeable effect on embryonic duration, egg survivorship and size at hatching for A. percula, and tended to have a positive effect on the length and weight of larvae."
Are climate alarmist scientists ever right?
Read here. It's another case of wild speculations by climate alarmist scientists that starts it; then it is hysterically blown out of proportion by the mainstream megaphone; and, it is then proven to be demonstrably wrong (the wild speculation) by real scientific research. Surprise!
Everyone repeat after us: any climate or environmental predicted calamity, catastrophe, or crisis reported by the mainstream media is bogus - ignore it. Again. The world is not going to end because of human CO2. In fact, the world may become better because of more CO2.
Read here. CO2-enriched seawater is not the hyped menace that alarmists claim.
"Kurihara et al. report they "observed no significant differences in the abundance of total meiofauna, nematodes, harpacticoid copepods (including adults and copepodites) and nauplii by the end of the experiment." In addition, they say there "may have been successful recruitments under elevated CO2 conditions," and, therefore, that "elevated CO2 had not impacted the reproduction of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods."....."In the words of the three researchers, "these results suggest that the projected atmospheric CO2 concentration in the year 2300 does not have acute effects on the meiofauna.""
"In 1954, the US detonated the world’s largest nuclear weapon at Bikini Island in the South Pacific. The bomb was equivalent to 30 billion pounds of TNT, vapourised three islands, and raised water temperatures to 55,000 degrees. Yet half a century of rising CO2 later, the corals at Bikini are thriving. Another drop in pH of 0.075 will likely have less impact on the corals than a thermonuclear blast. The corals might even survive a rise in ocean temperatures of half a degree, since they flourished at times when the earth’s temperature was 10C higher than the present....There seems to be no shortage of theories about how rising CO2 levels will destroy the planet, yet the geological record shows that life flourished for hundreds of millions of years with much higher CO2 levels and temperatures. This is a primary reason why there are so many skeptics in the geological community. At some point the theorists will have to start paying attention to empirical data."
Read here. Multiple peer-reviewed studies examine ocean acidification issue.
"There have been more than enough speculative predictions of catastrophic negative impacts due to the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content with regard to the ability of earth's oceans to sustain their many different lifeforms, as well as impassioned calls for immediate actions to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, when for all we currently know, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations could well prove to be a net benefit to the marine biosphere, just as they are a huge blessing to earth's terrestrial lifeforms."
"First and foremost is the fact that calcification cannot be accurately modeled on a purely physical-chemical basis that is readily amenable to mathematical representation, for it is a biologically-driven physical-chemical process that behaves much differently than has been implied by the simplistic "lifeless" analyses of the researchers cited above, as has been repeatedly demonstrated by many of the studies we have reviewed and archived under the heading of Calcification in our Subject Index.....Second, and the subject of this Editorial, is the fact that marine photosynthesis tends to increase surface oceanic pH, countering the tendency for it to decline as the air's CO2 content rises, as has been demonstrated by Lindholm and Nummelin (1999). This phenomenon has been shown to have the ability to dramatically increase the pH of marine bays, lagoons and tidal pools (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam, 1994; Macedo et al., 2001; Hansen, 2002), as well as significantly enhance the surface water pH of areas as large as the North Sea (Brussaard et al., 1996). And to this sizable body of research can now be added the findings of Middelboe and Hansen (2007), who studied a wave-exposed boulder reef in Aalsgaarde on the northern coast of Zealand, Denmark, and a sheltered shallow-water area in Kildebakkerne in the estuary Roskilde Fjord, Denmark."....."Adding to these findings the fact that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations tend to stimulate marine photosynthesis, it can be appreciated that doom-and-gloom stories of impending extinctions of earth's marine calcifying organisms due to a CO2-induced decrease in oceanic pH are merely that - stories, without any basis in fact."
Read here. Just to summarize, there is not enough fossil fuel carbon to turn the oceans acidic. Ocean "acidification" is a fool's nightmare.
"In the oceans, there is a buffering reaction between the sea floor basalts and sea water. Sea water has a local and regional variation in pH (pH 7.8 to 8.3). It should be noted that pH is a log scale and that if we are to create acid oceans, then there is not enough CO2 in fossil fuels to create oceanic acidity because most of the planet’s CO2 is locked up in rocks...When we run out of rocks on Earth or plate tectonics ceases, then we will have acid oceans...In the Precambrian, it is these reactions that rapidly responded to huge changes in climate (-40 deg C to +50 deg C), large sea level changes (+ 600m to -640m) and rapid climate shifts over a few thousand years from ‘snowball’ or ‘slushball’ Earth to very hot conditions (e.g. Neoproterozoic cap carbonates that formed in water at ~50 deg C lie directly on glacial rocks). During these times, there were rapid changes in oceanic pH and CO2 was removed from the oceans as carbonate. It is from this time onwards (750 Ma) that life started to extract huge amounts of CO2 from the oceans, life has expanded and diversified and this process continues (which is why we have low CO2 today)."